KE Seetha Ram

About KE Seetha Ram

KE Seetha Ram is a senior consulting specialist for capacity building and training projects at ADBI.
Author Archive | KE Seetha Ram
Urban development

Municipal bonds: Innovative mechanisms to finance smart cities in India

Municipal bonds: innovative mechanisms to finance smart cities in India
Reports from the United Nations estimate that India will add 404 million persons to its urban areas between 2014 and 2050 (UN DESA 2014) and that it will have seven cities with a population of more than 10 million by 2030 (UN DESA 2016). Currently, India is making an ambitious effort in its urban transformation under the “Smart Cities Mission” of the Union Government. With the guidance of the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs, India’s urban local bodies (ULBs) have been proactively working to achieve better efficiency and equity in the utilization of financial resources for developing municipal infrastructure. They have been augmenting their financial autonomy by developing data-driven and market-based financial instruments that attract investments to their projects.


Minimizing the Cost of Fecal Sludge Management through Co-Treatment

Minimizing the Cost of Fecal Sludge Management through Co-Treatment
The City Development Initiative for Asia, the Asian Development Bank, other multilateral agencies, and national governments are funding sewerage systems for medium and large cities throughout Asia. Even at “full” sewerage coverage, cities often find that some, if not many, buildings are still reliant on septic tanks, pits, or other onsite systems. For cities with or that are planning sewerage systems, co-treatment may enable citywide sanitation by minimizing the need for standalone fecal sludge treatment plants.